Avant, Vol. XII, No. 1, https://doi.org/10.26913/avant.2021.01.06
published under license CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Jesper Ahlin Marceta
Faculty of Law
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
Received 10 March 2021; accepted 26 July 2021; published 6 September 2021.
Download full text
Abstract: Value conflicts between individualism and collectivism are common. In philosophy, such conflicts have been conceptualized as conflicts between individuality and conformity, among other things. This article develops a more detailed conceptual framework by combining philosophical analysis with empirical observations. The focus is on value conflicts pertaining to LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) factors in a non-individualist society (Georgia). Conservative or traditional norms sometimes constrain LGBT individuals by influencing them to adapt to social expectations. The phenomenon is intuitively clear and has been reported on in numerous quantitative investigations. A qualitative study has been conducted on how LGBT individuals in Georgia experience the constraining influence of such norms. Deep interviews (n=8) have clarified how, more precisely, the effects of those influences should be conceptualized. The results indicate that important distinctions between different types of influences, as well as different objects of influence, have been overlooked in previous philosophical inquiries about value conflicts in this context. The conceptual framework developed throughout the article should be of use to philosophers and social scientists studying individualism and collectivism, and to policymakers working with LGBT issues.
Keywords: individualism; LGBT; authenticity; individuality; singularity
|Adamczyk, A., & Pitt, C. (2009). Shaping Attitudes About Homosexuality: The Role of Religion and Cultural Context. Social Science Research 38(2), 338-351.
|Administration of the Government of Georgia. (2016). Reform in Georgia. Retrieved (2020-09-14) from: http://gov.ge/files/288_52140_166496_20151026|
|Aghdgomelashvili, E. (2016). From Prejudice to Equality: Study of Societal Attitudes, Knowledge and Information Regarding the LGBT Community and Their Rights. Women’s Initiatives Supporting Group.|
|Ahlin Marceta, J. (2019). Authenticity in Bioethics: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice (doctoral thesis). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.|
|Ahlin Marceta, J. (2021). Constructing the Abstract Individual. Erkenntnis.
|Bakhtadze, K. (2018). Intersectional Discrimination and LGBTI People – Litigation Report. Women’s Initiatives Supporting Group.|
|Bialystok, L. (2014). Authenticity and the Limits of Philosophy. Dialogue 53(2), 271-298.
|Blackburn, S. (2008). Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford University Press.|
|Brennan, J. (2005). Choice and Excellence: A Defense of Millian Individualism. Social Theory and Practice 31(4), 483-498.
|Callaway, H. G. (1994). Liberalism and the Moral Significance of Individualism: A Deweyan View. Reason Papers 19, 13-29.|
|Caucasus Barometer. (2011). JUSHOMO: Justified or not – Homosexuality. Retrieved (2020-09-15) from: https://caucasusbarometer.org/en/cb2011ge/JUSHOMO/|
|Caucasus Barometer. (2013). TRUGOCH: Level of trust in Georgian Orthodox church. Retrieved (2020-09-15) from: https://caucasusbarometer.org/en/cb2013ge/TRUGOCH/|
|Charmaz, K., & Belgrave, L. L. (2012). Qualitative Interviewing and Grounded Theory Analysis. In Gubrium, J. F., Holstein, J. A., Marvasti, A. B., & McKinney, K. D. (Eds.). The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft (pp. 347-365). SAGE Publications, Inc.
|Christman, J. 2009. The Politics of Persons: Individual Autonomy and Socio-historical Selves. Cambridge University Press.
|Chun Tie, Y., Birks, M., & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded Theory Research: A Design Framework for Novice Researchers. SAGE Open Medicine.
|Deneen, P. J. (2018). Why Liberalism Failed. Yale University Press.
|Dewey, J. (1999). Individualism Old and New. Promotheus Books.|
|Dragić, G. (2019). LGBTQ Rights and Georgia’s European Union Aspirations. In Austin, R. C. (Ed.). Georgia in Transition: State-building and Democratization in the Caucasus (pp. 17-33). University of Toronto.|
|Durkheim, E. (1969 ). “L’individualisme et les intellectuels”. In Lukes, S. Durkheim’s ‘Individualism and the Intellectuals.’ Political Studies 17(1), 14-30.
|Elster, J. (1983). Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality. Cambridge University Press.
|Esaiasson, P., Giljam, M., Oscarsson, H., & Wängnerud, L. (2012). Metodpraktikan. Konsten att studera samhälle, individ och marknad. Norstedts Juridik AB.|
|Forbes, I. (2015 ). Marx and the New Individual. Routledge.
|Freedom House. (2020). Freedom in the World 2020. Retrieved (2020-09-15) from: https://freedomhouse.org/countries/freedom-world/scores|
|Gilead, A. (2015). Cruelty, Singular Individuality, and Peter the Great. Philosophia 43(2), 337-354.
|Hill, T. E. (1980). Humanity as an End in Itself. Ethics 91(1), 84-99.
|Human Rights Watch. (2019). World Report 2019. Retrieved (2020-09-15) from: https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/georgia|
|Kant, I. (1785). Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. In Gregor, M. J. (Ed.). Practical Philosophy (pp. 41-108). The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. (1996). Cambridge University Press.|
|Kateb, G. (1989a). Democratic Individuality and the Meaning of Rights. In Rosenblum, N. L. (Ed.). Liberalism and the Moral Life (pp. 183-206). Harvard University Press.
|Kateb, G. (1989b). Individualism, Communitarianism, and Docility. Social Research 56(4), 921-942.|
|Kateb, G. (2002). Individuality and Egotism. In Honig, B., & Mapel, R. D. (Eds.). Skepticism, Individuality, and Freedom: The Reluctant Liberalism of Richard Flathman (pp. 86-110). University of Minnesota Press.|
|Kateb, G. (2003). Democratic Individualism and its Critics. Annual Review of Political Science 6(1), 275-305.
|Lukes, S. (2006 ). Individualism. ECPR Press.|
|MacIntyre, A. (1984). After Virtue. University of Notre Dame Press.|
|McNamara, C. (n.d.). General Guidelines for Conducting Research Interviews. Free Management Library. Retrieved (2020-09-15) from: https://managementhelp.org/businessresearch/interviews.htm|
|Mestvirishvili,, M., Zurabishvili, T., Iakobidze, T., & Mestvirishvili, N. (2017). Exploring Homophobia in Tbilisi, Georgia. Journal of Homosexuality 64(9), 1253-1282.
|Mill, J. S. (1977 ). On Liberty. In Robson, J. M. (Ed.). Essays on Politics and Society. University of Toronto Press.|
|Nussbaum, M. (1999). Sex and Social Justice. Oxford University Press.
|Pearce, S. C., & Cooper, A. (2016). LGBT Activism in Eastern and Central Europe. In Naples, N. A. (Ed.). The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
|Pew Research Center. (2018). Eastern and Western Europeans Differ on Importance of Religion, Views of Minorities, and Key Social Issues. Retrieved (2020-09-15) from: https://www.pewforum.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/2018/10/Eastern-Western-Europe-FOR-WEB.pdf|
|Puolimatka, T. (2004). Sphere Pluralism and Critical Individuality. Studies in Philosophy and Education 23(1), 21-39.
|Pyyhtinen, O. (2008). Ambiguous Individuality: Georg Simmel on the “Who” and the “What” of the Individual. Human Studies 31(3), 279-298.
|Ratiani, T., Aghdomelashvili, E., & Gotsiridze, G. (2015). In Janezashvili, N. (Ed.). Discrimination and Hate Crime Against LGBT Persons (pp. 105-186). Women’s Initiatives Supporting Group.|
|Rawls, J. (2008). Freeman, S. (Ed.). Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.|
|Sandel, M. J. (1998 ). Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. Cambridge University Press.
|Santos, H. C., Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossman, I. (2017). Global Increases in Individualism. Psychological Science 28(9), 1228-1239.
|Saunders, B., Sim, J., Kingstone, T., et al. (2018). Saturation in Qualitative Research: Exploring its Conceptualization and Operationalization. Quality & Quantity 52(4), 1893-1907.
|Shahnazaryan, N., Aslanova, A., & Badasyan, E. (2016). Under the Rainbow Flags: LGBTI Rights in the South Caucasus. Caucasus Edition – Journal of Conflict Transformation.|
|Shamoo, A. E., & Resnik, D. B. (2015). Responsible Conduct of Research. Oxford University Press.|
|Siedentop, L. (2014). Inventing the Individual: The Origins of Western Liberalism. Penguin Books.
|Taylor, C. (1990). Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers. Cambridge University Press.|
|Taylor, C. (1991). The Ethics of Authenticity. Harvard University Press.|
|Transparency International. (2018). Corruption Perception Index 2018. Retrieved (2020-09-15) from: https://www.transparency.org/cpi2018|
|Tocqueville, A. (2010 ). Democracy in America: Volume II. Liberty Fund.|
|Tolkachev, D., & Tolordava, T. (2019). Shared Past, Different Future? Russian and Georgian Authorities’ Discourse Concerning Homosexuality. Sexuality & Culture 24(2), pp. 447-464.
|Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism & Collectivism. Routledge.|
|Taylor, C. (2001). Individualism-Collectivism and Personality. Journal of Personality 69(6), 907-924.
|Valentini, L. (2012). Ideal vs. Non-Ideal Theory: A Conceptual Map. Philosophy Compass 7, 654-664.
|Williams, B. (1973). A Criticism of Utilitarianism. In Smart, J. J. C., & Williams B. (Eds). Utilitarianism: For and Against (pp. 77-150). Cambridge University Press.|
|Woolf, J. (2011). Ethics and Public Policy: A Philosophical Inquiry. Routledge.|